[6], Umberto was the first cousin of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. [47] Mack Smith wrote that Umberto was: "More attractive and outgoing than his father, he was even more a soldier at heart, and completely inexperienced as a politician...In personality less astute and intelligent than his father...less obstinate, he was far more open, affable and ready to learn". In addition he is weak and dissipated, with a degenerate and even oriental disposition inherited from his Balkan mother". At the time when Umberto was dying, in 1983, President Sandro Pertini wanted the Italian Parliament to allow Umberto to return to his native country. During this period, known as the Feudal Anarchy (888–962), the title Rex Italicorum ("King of the Italians" or "King of the Italics") was introduced. [2] During the crisis of May 1915, when Victor Emmanuel III decided to break the terms of the Triple Alliance by declaring war on the Austrian empire, he found himself in a quandary as the Italian Parliament was against declaring war; several times, the king discussed abdication with the throne to pass to the Duke of Aosta instead of Umberto. [36] On the morning of 9 September 1943, Umberto arrived with Victor Emmanuel and Badoglio in Brindisi. [44] Since the war in which Mussolini had involved Italy in 1940 had become such an utter catastrophe for the Italian people by 1943, it had the effect of discrediting all those associated with the Fascist system. [22] After her failure – she never met the American agents – she was sent with her children to Sarre, in Aosta Valley, and isolated from the political life of the Royal House. [60] The historian and philosopher Benedetto Croce, a minister in the Badoglio cabinet, called Umberto "entirely insignificant" as he found the crown prince to be shallow, vain, superficial, and of low intelligence, and alluding to his homosexuality stated his private life was "tainted by scandal". [40], During the years 1943–45, the Italian economy collapsed with much of the infrastructure destroyed, inflation rampant, the black market becoming the dominant form of economic activity, and food shortages reducing much of the population to the brink of starvation in both northern and southern Italy. In 952, Berengar and Adalbert became his vassals but remained kings until being deposed by Otto. [22] More importantly, Victor Emmanuel was proudly misogynistic, holding women in complete contempt as the king believed it to be a scientific fact that the brains of women were significantly more underdeveloped than the brains of men. Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire in 552. He was accorded the title Prince of Piedmont, which was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September. In the 2 June 1946 referendum, a 52% majority voted to make Italy a republic. [60] The British foreign secretary Anthony Eden wrote after meeting Umberto in a message to London that he was "the poorest of poor creatures", and his only qualification for the throne was that he had more charm than his charmless father. [60] Sam Reber, an American official with the ACC, who had known Umberto before the war, met the prince in Naples in early 1944 and wrote he found him "greatly improved. [28] By this time, many Fascist gerarchi had become convinced that it was necessary to depose Mussolini to save the Fascist system, and on the night of 24–25 July 1943, at a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council a motion introduced by the gerarchi Dino Grandi to take away Mussolini's powers was approved by a vote of 19 to 8. [81] Umberto spoke favorably of Togliatti as he was "clever, agreeable, and easy to discuss problems with". [64] In the same interview, Umberto stated that he wanted post-war Italy to have a government "patterned on the British monarchy, and at the same time incorporating as much of America's political framework as possible". During his period as Regent, Umberto saw his father only three times, partly out of a bid to distance himself and partly because of tensions between father and son. It will not divide it". He was the third child, and the only son, of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife, Elena of Montenegro. This role was merely formal, the de facto command belonging to his father, King Victor Emmanuel III, who jealously guarded his power of supreme command from Il Duce, Benito Mussolini. [41] In 1943–44, the cost of living in southern Italy skyrocketed by 321% while it was estimated that people in Naples needed 2, 000 calories per day to survive while the average Neapolitan was doing well if they consumed 500 calories a day in 1943–44. [84] As a gesture to promote national unity after the traumas of the war, in June 1945, Umberto appointed as prime minister a prominent guerrilla leader, Ferruccio Parri. [80] However, Churchill during a visit to Rome in January 1945 called Umberto "a far more impressive figure than the politicians". At birth, Umberto was granted the traditional title of Prince of Piedmont. The Balkan playboy period was over. [30] During the secret armistice talks, Badoglio told Count Pietro Acquarone that he thought he might get better terms if Victor Emmanuel abdicated in favor of Umberto, complaining that the armistice terms that the king wanted were unacceptable to the Allies. [67] Mack Smith cautioned that the friendly reception that Umberto received in Rome may have been due to him being a symbol of normalcy after the harsh German occupation as opposed to genuine affection for the prince. [7], Military positions and attempted assassination, M.L.K "Republic versus Monarchy in Italy" p.305-313 from, Learn how and when to remove this template message, referendum on the continuation of the monarchy, Royal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Justice of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Special Class, Two Sicilian Royal Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, Royal Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Imperial and Royal Order of the Black Eagle, Royal Order of Saints George and Constantine, Royal Order of Prince Danilo I, Grand Cross Special Class, Order of Michael the Brave, Grand Officer 1st Class, Imperial Order of Saint Andrew the Apostle the First-Called, List of shortest reigning monarchs of all time, "Re di Maggio: Pasquino forgives King Umberto II", "King Umberto as heir wearing 4 Italian Orders", "King Umberto wearing 5 Italian and 1 Belgian Order(s)", "The Constantinian Order's Relationship with the Savoy Dynasty of Italy - Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George", "King Umberto wearing Bulgarian, Yugoslavian and British Orders", "King Umberto wearing Greek and Spanish Orders", "Toison Espagnole (Spanish Fleece) - 20th century", "แจ้งความ เรื่อง พระราชทานเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์", Genealogy of recent members of the House of Savoy, Website with Information on Italian Royal news stories, Newspaper clippings about Umberto II of Italy, Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Umberto_II_of_Italy&oldid=990469079, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Joseph, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Alexander (Bulgaria), Collars of the Order of Saints George and Constantine, Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), Grand Crosses of the Order of the Tower and Sword, Recipients of the Order of Karađorđe's Star, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 17:19. They then spent the afternoon together". After 887, Italy fell into instability, with many rulers claiming the kingship simultaneously: In 896, Arnulf and Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar and Lambert: In 951 Otto I of Germany invaded Italy and was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. [83] In response to objections from the CLN, Bonomi in practice accepted their claim that they represented the Italian people rather than the Crown while still swearing an oath of loyalty to Umberto as the Lieutenant General of the Realm when he took the prime minister's oath. [62], Umberto in September 1944 vetoed an attempt by the Bonomi government to start an investigation of who was responsible for abandoning Rome in September 1943 as he feared that it show his father was a coward. [10], Umberto was married in Rome on 8 January 1930 to Princess Marie José of Belgium (1906–2001), daughter of King Albert I of the Belgians and his wife, Queen Elisabeth, née Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria. [13] Montanari recalled that he was "seduced" by the lavish gifts Umberto gave him. [16] Umberto wanted to serve in the Ethiopian war, but was prevented from doing so by his father, who did however allow four royal dukes to serve in East Africa. King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. [65] Croce advised him to make a break with his father by choosing his advisers from the democratic parties, and it was due to Croce's influence that Umberto appointed Falcone Lucifero, a socialist lawyer as Minister of the Royal House. [76], By late 1944, the question of whether it was the CLN or the Crown that represented the Italian people came to a head. 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