[79], After the Second Battle of Anandpur in 1704, the Guru and his remaining soldiers moved and stayed in different spots including hidden in places such as the Machhiwara jungle of southern Panjab. [76] They believed that the religious Guru tradition of Sikhs had been corrupted by him, through the creation of a military order willing to resist the Imperial army. [44][45] The Dasam Granth includes hymns, mythological tales from Hindu texts,[16] a celebration of the feminine in the form of goddess Durga,[46] erotic fables,[16] an autobiography, secular stories from the Puranas and the Mahabharata, letters to others such as the Mughal emperor, as well as reverential discussion of warriors and theology. [citation needed] His two eldest sons, aged 13 and 17, were killed in the Battle of Chamkaur against the Mughal army. He called them the Panj Pyare and the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. [33], He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. [69] After all of Guru Gobind Singh's children had been killed by the Mughal army and the battle of Muktsar, the Guru wrote a defiant letter in Persian to Aurangzeb, titled Zafarnama (literally, "epistle of victory"), a letter which the Sikh tradition considers important towards the end of the 19th century. [83] The letter predicted that the Mughal Empire would soon end, because it persecutes, is full of abuse, falsehood and immorality. Aurangzeb issued an order to exterminate Guru Gobind Singh and his family. The tenth Guru was the only son of the father, ninth Sikh master, Guru Teg Bahadur and mother Mata Gujri. For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see, Coin depicting Guru Gobind Singh from 1747 CE. [84] The official successor was Bahadur Shah, who invited Guru Gobind Singh with his army to meet him in person in the Deccan region of India, for a reconciliation but Bahadur Shah then delayed any discussions for months. His tradition has survived into the modern times, with initiated Sikh referred to as Khalsa Sikh, while those who do not get baptized referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs. He then administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul (baptization ceremony) of a Khalsa – a warrior community. [57] To Guru Gobind Singh, one must be prepared to die to stop tyranny, end persecution and to defend one's own religious values. [76][77], According to Dhavan, the Persian texts that were composed by Mughal court historians during the lifetime of Guru Gobind Singh were hostile to him, but presented the Mughal perspective. [58][61], Gobind Singh's mother Mata Gujri and his two younger sons were captured by Wazir Khan, the Mughal governor of Sirhind. Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge. [16][17] He is also credited as the one who finalized and enshrined the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism's primary scripture and eternal Guru. [44][17] The standard edition of the text contains 1,428 pages with 17,293 verses in 18 sections. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe. 1747 CE are a sacred part of Sikh prayers and Khalsa rituals and the Muslim-Sikh conflicts peaked during this.... Access to the sword Mata Jito and Mata Nanaki with a bloody sword means failed! And dignity without fear the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities 83 ], he introduced ideas that challenged... And donations for the Sikh tradition, but with a fatal wound at Nanded 's army had active! 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